Dr. Elco Koks


Elco Koks is an Associate Professor within the Water and Climate Risk group at the Institute for Environmental Studies (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam) and a Honorary Research Associate within the Oxford Programme of Sustainable Infrastructure Systems (OPSIS). His research combines knowledge from disaster impact modelling, critical infrastructure, network analysis and macroeconomics.

He currently supervises eight PhDs that work on the interplay of multi-risk, critical infrastructure risk modelling, network analysis and economic impact analysis.

One of his own specialties is the modelling of the economy-wide consequences of disasters on both a regional and interregional level, focusing on industrial impacts and infrastructure systems. One of the key elements in his research is to integrate natural disaster models with macroeconomic impact models.


Year Programme University
2012-2016  PhD Economic modelling for Flood Risk Assessment   Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
2010-2011 MSc Spatial Economics Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
2007-2010 BSc Earth & Economics Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

Working Experience

Year Job Title Place
2024-now Associate Professor Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
2019-2023 Assistant Professor Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
2019-2023 Honorary Research Associate    University of Oxford
2017-2019 Postdoctoral Researcher University of Oxford
2016-2018  Postdoctoral Researcher Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
2012-2016 PhD Researcher Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

Research projects

Year Project Role Funder
2023-2027   MIRACA Project Coordinator Horizon Europe
2021-2025 CoCliCo Workpackage Leader    Horizon 2020
2021-2025 MYRIAD - EU Researcher Horizon 2020
2021-2023 Resilient Regions Researcher NWO
2020-2025 VENI Project Coordinator NWO
2019-2022 Various Research Projects    Project Coordinator World Bank
2019-2023 RECEIPT Workpackage Leader Horizon 2020
2017-2019 ITRC-MISTRAL Researcher UK-EPSRC
2016-2018 WISC Workpackage Leader ECMWF
2012-2016 TURAS Researcher Horizon FP7


  1. OpenStreetMap for Multi-Faceted Climate Risk Assessments
    Evelyn Mühlhofer, Chahan Kropf, Lukas Riedel, David Niklaus Bresch, and Elco Koks
    Environmental Research Communications, 2024
  2. Compound flood impacts from Hurricane Sandy on New York City in climate-driven storylines
    Henrique MD Goulart, Irene Benito Lazaro, Linda Garderen, Karin Wiel, Dewi Le Bars, Elco Koks, and Bart Van den Hurk
    Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2024
  3. Uncovering the Dynamics of Multi-Sector Impacts of Hydrological Extremes: A Methods Overview
    Mariana Madruga de Brito, Jan Sodoge, Alexander Fekete, Michael Hagenlocher, Elco Koks, Christian Kuhlicke, Gabriele Messori, Marleen Ruiter, and 2 more authors
    Earth’s Future, 2024
  4. Global transportation infrastructure exposure to the change of precipitation in a warmer world
    Kai Liu, Qianzhi Wang, Ming Wang, and Elco Koks
    Nature Communications, 2023
  5. A new method to compile global multi-hazard event sets
    Judith N Claassen, Philip J Ward, James Daniell, Elco Koks, Timothy Tiggeloven, and Marleen C Ruiter
    Scientific Reports, 2023
  6. An Integrated Assessment of Climate Change Impacts and Implications on Bonaire
    L Oosterhout, Elco Koks, P Beukering, S Schep, T Tiggeloven, S Manen, M Knaap, C Duinmeijer, and 1 more author
    Economics of Disasters and Climate Change, 2023
  7. Systemic risks from climate-related disruptions at ports
    Jasper VerschuurElco Koks, and Jim W Hall
    Nature Climate Change, 2023
  8. Climate impact storylines for assessing socio-economic responses to remote events
    Bart JJM Hurk, Marina Baldissera Pacchetti, Esther Boere, Alessio Ciullo, Liese Coulter, Suraje Dessai, Ertug Ercin, Henrique MD Goulart, and 5 more authors
    Climate Risk Management, 2023
  9. A global assessment of national road network vulnerability
    Elco Koks, Julie Rozenberg, Mersedeh Tariverdi, Ben Dickens, Charles Fox, Kees Ginkel, and Stephane Hallegatte
    Environmental Research: Infrastructure and Sustainability, 2023
  10. A Generalized Natural Hazard Risk Modelling Framework for Infrastructure Failure Cascades
    Evelyn MühlhoferElco Koks, Chahan M Kropf, Giovanni Sansavini, and David N Bresch
    Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 2023
  11. Multi-hazard risk to global port infrastructure and resulting trade and logistics losses
    Jasper VerschuurElco Koks, Sihan Li, and Jim W Hall
    Communications Earth & Environment, 2023
  12. The impacts of coastal flooding and sea level rise on critical infrastructure: a novel storyline approach
    Elco Koks, D Le Bars, AH Essenfelder, Sadhana Nirandjan, and P Sayers
    Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure, 2022
  13. A spatially-explicit harmonized global dataset of critical infrastructure
    Sadhana NirandjanElco Koks, Philip J Ward, and Jeroen CJH Aerts
    Scientific Data, 2022
  14. A systemic risk framework to improve the resilience of port and supply-chain networks to natural hazards
    Jasper Verschuur, Raghav Pant, Elco Koks, and Jim Hall
    Maritime Economics & Logistics, 2022
  15. Ports’ criticality in international trade and global supply-chains
    Jasper VerschuurElco Koks, and JW Hall
    Nature Communications, 2022
  16. Critical infrastructure and hazards: A risk modelling approach
  17. Will river floods ‘tip’European road networks? A robustness assessment
    Kees Van Ginkel, Elco Koks, Frederique Groen, Viet Dung Nguyen, and Lorenzo Alfieri
    Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 2022
  18. System vulnerability to flood events and risk assessment of railway systems based on national and river basin scales in China
    Weihua Zhu, Kai Liu, Ming Wang, Philip J Ward, and Elco Koks
    Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2022
  19. Improved assessment of rainfall-induced railway infrastructure risk in China using empirical data
    Weihua Zhu, Kai Liu, Ming Wang, Sadhana Nirandjan, and Elco Koks
    Natural Hazards, 2022
  20. Brief communication: Critical infrastructure impacts of the 2021 mid-July western European flood event
    Elco Koks, Kees Van Ginkel, Margreet JE Marle, and Anne Lemnitzer
    Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2022
  21. A River Flood and Earthquake Risk Assessment of Railway Assets along the Belt and Road
    Qianzhi Wang, Kai Liu, Ming Wang, and Elco Koks
    International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 2021
  22. Global economic impacts of COVID-19 lockdown measures stand out in high-frequency shipping data
    Jasper VerschuurElco Koks, and Jim W Hall
    PloS one, 2021
  23. Flood risk assessment of the European road network
    Kees Van Ginkel, Francesco Dottori, Lorenzo Alfieri, Luc Feyen, and Elco Koks
    Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2021
  24. Risks on global financial stability induced by climate change: the case of flood risks
    Antoine Mandel, Timothy Tiggeloven, Daniel Lincke, Elco Koks, Philip Ward, and Jochen Hinkel
    Climatic Change, 2021
  25. Observed impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on global trade
    Jasper VerschuurElco Koks, and Jim W Hall
    Nature Human Behaviour, 2021
  26. Port disruptions due to natural disasters: Insights into port and logistics resilience
    J Verschuur, Elco Koks, and JW Hall
    Transportation research part D: transport and environment, 2020
  27. Prioritising resilience policies to reduce welfare losses from natural disasters: a case study for coastal Bangladesh
    J Verschuur, Elco Koks, A Haque, and JW Hall
    Global Environmental Change, 2020
  28. A high-resolution wind damage model for Europe
    Elco Koks, and Toon Haer
    Scientific Reports, 2020
  29. Hard or soft flood adaptation? Advantages of a hybrid strategy for Shanghai
    Shiqiang Du, Paolo Scussolini, Philip J Ward, Min Zhang, Jiahong Wen, Luyang Wang, Elco Koks, Andres Diaz-Loaiza, and 3 more authors
    Global Environmental Change, 2020
  30. Seismic risk assessment of the railway network of China’s Mainland
    Weihua Zhu, Kai Liu, Ming Wang, and Elco Koks
    International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 2020
  31. Multiregional disaster impact models: Recent advances and comparison of outcomes
    Elco Koks, Raghav Pant, Trond Husby, Johannes Többen, and Jan Oosterhaven
  32. Understanding business disruption and economic losses due to electricity failures and flooding
    Elco Koks, Raghav Pant, Scott Thacker, and Jim W Hall
    International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 2019
  33. A global multi-hazard risk analysis of road and railway infrastructure assets
    Elco Koks, Julie Rozenberg, Conrad Zorn, Mersedeh Tariverdi, Michalis Vousdoukas, SA Fraser, JW Hall, and Stephane Hallegatte
    Nature communications, 2019
  34. Building asset value mapping in support of flood risk assessments: A case study of Shanghai, China
    Jidong Wu, Mengqi Ye, Xu Wang, and Elco Koks
    Sustainability, 2019
  35. Moving flood risk modelling forwards
    Nature Climate Change, 2018
  36. Adaptation to sea level rise: a multidisciplinary analysis for Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
    Paolo Scussolini, Thi Van Thu Tran, Elco Koks, Andres Diaz-Loaiza, Phi Long Ho, and Ralph Lasage
    Water Resources Research, 2017
  37. Household migration in disaster impact analysis: incorporating behavioural responses to risk
    Trond G Husby, and Elco Koks
    Natural Hazards, 2017
  38. Regional disaster impact analysis: comparing input–output and computable general equilibrium models
    Elco Koks, Lorenzo Carrera, Olaf Jonkeren, Jeroen CJH Aerts, Trond G Husby, Mark Thissen, Gabriele Standardi, and Jaroslav Mysiak
    Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2016
  39. A multiregional impact assessment model for disaster analysis
    Elco Koks, and Mark Thissen
    Economic Systems Research, 2016
  40. Improving flood damage assessment models in Italy
    Mattia Amadio, Jaroslav Mysiak, Lorenzo Carrera, and Elco Koks
    Natural Hazards, 2016
  41. Combining hazard, exposure and social vulnerability to provide lessons for flood risk management
    Elco Koks, Brenden Jongman, Trond G Husby, and Wouter JW Botzen
    Environmental science & policy, 2015
  42. Integrated direct and indirect flood risk modeling: development and sensitivity analysis
    Elco Koks, Md Bočkarjova, Hans Moel, and Jeroen CJH Aerts
    Risk analysis, 2015
  43. The economic-wide consequences of natural hazards: an application of a European interregional inputoutput model
    Elco Koks, and Mark Thissen
    In Conf. Pap. 22nd Input Output Conf., Lisboa, Port, 2014
  44. Increasing flood exposure in the Netherlands: implications for risk financing
    Brenden Jongman, Elco Koks, Trond G Husby, and Philip J Ward
    Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2014
  45. Effect of spatial adaptation measures on flood risk: study of coastal floods in Belgium
    Elco Koks, Hans Moel, Jeroen CJH Aerts, and Laurens M Bouwer
    Regional environmental change, 2014